Method of Geo-Chemical or Biomarker Research

Biomarker research is one of the most important research types to explore the history of the earth and paleoenvironments. Some biomarker exactly indicates the past events and incidents. By observing the abundance of those biomarkers inside the ancient sample scientist can explore the past. Example as, pristane (Pr ) and phytane (Ph) are the biomarkers that indicate the oxic and anoxic environments of the ocean respectively.

Complete flowchart of the Biomarker Research Method

Biomarker research is based on the following steps;

Step 1;

Collect rocks from the filed. The rocks collected should be nicely packed and before picking the rock sample must be avoided any weathered rock to collect. The weathered rocks can be identified by watching the red color and any yellowish color with some crack or fissure inside the rocks sample. try to collect a fresh sample from the deep inside the bed. Use a hammer to get a fresh sample. The age and the formation of the bed should be well known for collecting the rock sample for the biomarker research. Use a gripper poly pack and take around 500g of the rock sample. Write the sample name.

Step 2;

Wash and Clean the rock sample and measure weight. Avoid any contamination by some foreign body in the host rocks, like, other organic matter from nacked hands, mouth, or even form laboratory stuff. Cut the weathered surface by the cutting machine and avoid cracked and fissured part to use for the biomarker research



Step 3;

Make powder. Before making powder, you can crash a certain amount of cut-rock (120g) by the crasher. Then collect that 1-2 mm size grain in the burned aluminum paper. Then use rotating grinder machine to make powder.

Step 4;

Do soxhlet extraction for extraction the bitumen and kerogen from the powder sample. For the soxhlet extraction use 81g powder sample and put inside the thimble filter in a three-segmented part. every time weight the powder sample. Add 50 microliter  C22D46 standard inside the powder sample. Set up the soxhlet stuff and add 400 ml (350ml: 50ml of Dichloromethane and Methanol respectively) inside the round flask. Continue the soxhlet about 24 hrs. to extracts all the bitumen from the powder sample.

Step 5;

After the soxhlet extraction, concentrate in by a rotary evaporator.

Step 6;

Separate in 3 fractions using a silica gel column. The separation should be F1a (for the normal n-alkane), F1b+2 (for the aromatic hydrocarbon), F3-8 (for other mixed compounds).



Step 7;

Prepare the separated sample for the GCMS measurements. The aromatic (F1b+2) and saturated compounds (F1a) should be measured separately to get the desired biomarker from the bitumen and kerogen extracted from the samples.

Step 8;

Data analysis and Interpretation. There are many biomarkers in the separated samples. Based on the purpose of the research, analyze the data detected by the GCMSMS. Use the gas chromatogram mass spectrometry mass spectrometry (GCMSMS) machine carefully.

Now Explore the past world!!!!!

The Biomarker research is so important and interesting. we can know the past history of the earth like 3.8 Billion years ago what happened on the earth.

Read more; Paleo Historical Forest Fire, Meteorite Impact and Soil Erosion Event Can be Identified Using Biomarkers; Geologist Explained.

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