Floods are the most vulnerable natural disaster in Asian country especially Bangladesh. It causes huge damage to the country every year. Effective adaptation strategies are very important to mitigate these disasters combine with the development of infrastructure, nature-based solutions to minimize the loss of economic impacts.
Half the world’s population are located in cities, at rivers, along coastlines, or both. Trends in the flood-induced loss in increasing day by day in Asia and Africa even in Europe.
Extreme rainfall intensity increases the probability of floods. In addition, changing patterns of spring snowmelt have affected the timing of floods.
Adaptation to flooding by Nature-based Solutions
We can not stop all the natural disasters even flood suddenly or can completely be eliminated. Its impossible to prevent all disaster. Hence effective adaptation to flood risk need a diversified approach which includes protection by structural measures, early warning systems, risk-informed land planning, nature-based solutions.
Physical flood protection like making dikes and levees are generally cost-effective in areas especially Bangladesh. The Netherlands is the best example to use this type of Physical flood protection measure to manage flood. In Netherland, the most of the coastline is protected by a dike system. However, this protection needs immense capital investments for construction and maintenance.
Recent, idea to manage flood risk is the nature-based solutions which include the widening of natural floodplains, protecting and expanding wetlands, restoring coral reefs and investing in urban green spaces to reduce run-off. The nature-based solution for flood risk has a wide range of positive effects on ecosystem conservation, carbon storage, tourism and local employment.
In spite of the multiple benefits of nature-based solutions, flood control still depends on ‘gray’ infrastructure interventions. But nature-based solutions need to be emphasized among disaster management community to apply the benefits of the nature-based solution to manage the floods risk. One smart approach is combining green and gray infrastructure measures into so-called ‘hybrid’ solutions may have the best solutions.